Secrets of Successful Companies;
KAIZEN = Continuous better change
The global market transition from the divided markets in the world market has created a demand for high-quality, low-cost competition for customers, as well as the need to quickly develop customer-focused products and services. Today’s successful companies have been able to survive with continuous improvement activities by anticipating these changes instead of being satisfied with the current situation. In this process, all successful companies, especially Japanese companies, have adopted and implemented the Kaizen philosophy.
What is Kaizen?
Kaizen, kai (change) in Japan and zen (better)is a combination of words. In a combined state, “better change” means “continuous improvement” in other words.
It is a philosophy of life based on the principle of continuous development of change-oriented, small steps in every point of home, work, private and social life.
It is Kaizen ‘s main enemy to be content with the present situation.
It gives the message that one must be in constant effort to change and heal.
Kaizen is a philosophy that leads people to success in all areas of life with small but sure steps.
What is standard?
The dictionary is literally defined as “the only form that can be taken as an example, or as a basis, to fit certain measures, to the law, to the use”. In our sense, the standard is policies, rules, procedures and instructions prepared by management to ensure that employees repeat their jobs accurately and reliably. In addition, specs used to describe the specifications of products, machinery and materials are also a standard. The standards we use in business;
Kaizen standards are developed and maintained with small, gradual improvements. Kaizen is a constant challenge to the current standards.
The standards for Kaizen are simply to be replaced with better standards. It can only be said that the next job is done according to the new standard without permanent improvement. At the same time, the standardization ensures the achievements of the improvement within the company. It has not reached its goal of kaizen without propagation. Improving standards means creating more advanced standards. Continuous improvement can only be achieved when better standards are established. For this reason, kaizen practitioners believe that the nature of the standards is temporary, and they see it as the stones used to carry ongoing improvement work and standards from one to another.
If the standards can not be applied by the employees, the standards should be revised if the actual situation is different. If it is implemented, it should take necessary measures to ensure management discipline.
The standard applies to everyone, it is the duty of the management to ensure that everyone works in accordance with the standards. This is called ‘discipline’.
KAIZEN AND INNOVATION
When we look at the methods of improvement in companies, we see two different methods, one is gradual progression (kaizen) and the other is suddenly the one big step that has taken place (innovation).
Kaizen is the development and maintenance of operating standards with small, gradual improvements. Innovation is
a radical change in the current situationas a result of large monetary investment in new technology or tools. This change is not correct.
|Human priority||Technology and money priority|
|Everyone’s participation||Limited number of attendance|
intensive effort to protect
little effort to protect
|Continuous and regular||At intervals, development is irregular|
|Protection and remediation||Scavenging and re-taking|
|Slowly developing economies||In fast developing economies|
Kaizen does not exclude innovation, but in fact kaizen and innovation complement one another. Kaizen tries to maximize benefits by improving the current situation. But over time, the situation is not enough for the conditions of the day, and at this point the eyes should be turned to newness. In today’s competitive environment, the higher the cost of using the latest technology, the higher the cost of implementing advanced management techniques. If a company continues to exist, it needs both kaizen and innovation.
KAIZEN, PROCESS AND CONCLUSION
Kaizen processes prioritize, because processes need to be good in order for the results to be good. The process-driven way of thinking bridges the gap between process and result, goals and tools, goals and measures, enabling people to look at the whole picture without prejudice.
Quality control started with the inspection of the products produced afterwards, but not with quality control only. You can only provide qualities by improving production processes.
Successful companies that improve quality in their production processes have now begun to process quality products in the design phase. This example explains the relationship between the process and the result very well. The task of management is to guide processes and results. On the one hand, they should be supportive and encouraging to improve the processes while checking performance and results. Only a manager who is interested in the results can make a right decision after reviewing the indicators that show efforts to improve processes. Because the remediation activities are small, gradual steps and they show their effect in the long run. Management should believe that the countervailing of these efforts will be taken in the long run.
Process priority criteria are called “P criteria”, and result priority criteria are called “S criteria”.
P criteria are long term, are directed at employees’ efforts and often require behavioral changes. S criteria are direct and short.
P criteria and S criteria can be developed and used at all levels of management. Managers should be interested in the results, but when we look at the managers of successful companies we often see that they are process-oriented. Prosessive questionnaires consider both P criteria and S criteria in the decision-making phase. Criteria P that they consider in the decision-making phase;
If management uses process-oriented thinking appropriately and supports it with kaizen philosophy, it will see in the long run how much competition will increase.
KAIZEN AND CONDITIONS
The results of the kaizen work performed shall meet the conditions for the following 3 items, and the work done if it does not qualify as kaizen work.
Kaizen should not create a negative situation in any of these three. For example; Costs are reduced as a result of the kaizen work done, but if the job safety risk occurs or increases the risk, the kaizen work done is not accepted. If the quality is increasing but the cost is increasing, then it is not accepted as kaizen.
KAIZEN AND MANAGEMENT The
Kaizen administration has two main elements; Protection is the act of ensuring that all employees work in accordance with current standards and that they are put into practice when new standards are established, ensuring the appropriateness of control, dissemination and continuity. Improvement is the act of creating more advanced standards. Once more standards are established, ensuring that new standards are implemented becomes a duty of protection.
It is the duty of the management to protect the standards and to improve the management. Operators spend all their time applying standards. As we become acquainted with their work, as they are developed through trainings, they work in different jobs and begin to use their intelligence as much as their physical skills. As
they become more interested in improvement work, they start to give suggestions . At this point they start to do the duty to protect standards.
Investing in Kaizen means investing in people, gradually showing its effect, its results are often invisible, and the effect is felt in the long run. Management should be patient and patient here.
TASKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
MEDIUM STAGE MANAGEMENT
INITIATION OF THE KAIZEN PROGRAM
The role of top management in Kaizen program management is huge. There’s no turning back when you start Cain. In a successful kaizen program, Kaizen company is settled in the culture and will not come again. Management must initiate and maintain the program in a determined and disciplined manner. With a good start, they must influence employees and create a belief and motivation to get full support. Employees do not apply or adopt anything that the management does not believe, do not adopt or implement. If you do not succeed when you start an application, it is 2-3 times harder to reach belief and trust again for those who have no confidence and trust in the second trial. For this reason, it is very important to carry out the necessary preparations carefully before a good start. These preparations can be listed as follows;
Move with the correct data. If your data collection system is weak or does not exist, you should first install this system. You can always improve when the information is collected correctly, the right analysis is done and the application is transferred.
KAIZEN and PUKÖ The
PUKÖ cycle is a series of activities carried out to carry out remediation activities, control their results and make the progress made possible permanent.
The plans; starting with data collection for identifying a problem, analyzing the current situation and developing a remediation plan (solution development). Pareto analysis, causal
diagrams, causal analysis, problem solving tools such as 5N-1K are used.
Apply; when the healing plan is finalized.
Check it; it is checked whether the targeted improvement has taken place. * PUKÖ Cycle
Take action ; If the desired improvement is not achieved, a new plan is made and the cycle continues until the intended improvement is achieved.
If the desired improvement is achieved, the application is standardized. (Revision of existing standard or creation of new standard) The new, more advanced standard now provides new ground for the next improvements. The existing standards must be applied consistently before the PDCA. Once stabilization is achieved, standards are being upgraded using the PBL cycle. In the beginning, there may be problems in the implementation of the determined standards. In the process of stabilizing the standards by solving these problems, the SDS (Standardize, Apply, Control, Prevent) cycle is used. It is used to stabilize the standards of the SCL cycle and to improve the PDCA cycle.
According to the complexity and size of the problem, kaizen studies are divided into two parts:
• First – then Kaizen • Focused Kaizen
First – Then Kaizen
It is the improvement work done for the problems which are easy to explain with photographs showing the beginning and the end of a one page form which is mostly result of the employees’ recommendation and is short. They will be completed in a short time. Before-Then kaizen;
• It increases morale and motivation.
• It is easily understood by everyone because it is not complicated.
• Encourages and facilitates participation.
• Directs employees to think
• Makes them work smarter. • It is a very useful tool that helps to become a habit of finding suggestions.
Focused (Kobetsu) Kaizen
is a remedial action to find the root cause of the problem of the team formed by people who are participating in the different parts of the problem-solving tools that the PUKE cycle is based on for the company’s goals and needs. Once the correctness of the remediation activities is checked, it is standardized and disseminated.
Focused improvements are made in ten steps:
Dissemination of Kaizen work is very important, reaches the real benefits of kaizen in the dissemination of results. Focused kaizen is used for complex and large problems, so it takes a long time. It is usually targeted to be completed within 1 to 2 months. Focused kaizen activities include senior management and mid-level managers;
Appointment of the
team •Appointment of the team leader and members• Team orientation
• Sponsorship to assist the team at points where the worker is stuck.
The word “savings” is used for the benefit Kaizen provides. The time period for calculating Before-After and Focused kaizen costs is usually 1 year. The amount of savings that will be realized within 1 year is deducted from the total cost of savings to be provided. The teams make a presentation of their management and their kaizen work they have done to their colleagues. Many people will have information about themselves before they are made, and their motivation will increase as the satisfaction of their team members is appreciated by the managers and their satisfaction.
KAIZEN AND PROBLEM SOLVING VEHICLES At the
same time Kaizen connects the tools used to solve problems. The following tools are usually used to solve the problem;
CORRUPTION AND IMPROVEMENT AREAS
Generally accepted losses for businesses operating in the manufacturing sector are defined as “16 major losses”.
Kaizen maliyetlerin düşmesi, kalitenin artması ve sevkiyatların zamanında yapılması için bu 16 kaybın iyileştirilmesi gerektiğini esas alır. Bu kayıplar işletme bazında değişkenlik gösterebilir ve sayıları artabilir. Kaizen programını uzun süredir uygulayan şirketler bu kayıpların sayısını 33’e kadar çıkarmışlardır. Ayrıca bu kayıpların azaltılması için zaman içerisinde Japonlar tarafından özel yöntem ve metodlar geliştirilmiştir. Setup ve ayar sürelerini azaltmak için SMED, arıza ve hata oranlarını düşürmek için PM Analizi ve Yatık Sekiz
metodu bu yöntem ve metodların başında gelmektedir. Yönetim her yıl ocak ayında şirketin o yıla ait hedefleri ve ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda yapılmasını istediği kaizen çalışmalarını çalışanları ile paylaşır. Şirketlerde kayıplar ve israflara yönelik kaizenler dışında; 5S, İş güvenliği, Sağlık, Çevre ve Ergonomi ile ilgili kaizenler de yapılmaktadır. Yönetim bu konularda kaizen çalışmaları yapılmasını teşvik eder ve kaizenlerin maliyetinden çok içeriğine önem verir.
KAIZEN VE PROBLEMLER
Problemin olduğu her yerde iyileştirmeler için potansiyel vardır. Ancak çoğu kimse bir problem ile karşılaştığında onu kabul etme cesaretini gösteremez. İnsanın yapabileceği en kötü şeylerden birisi bir problemi görmezlikten gelmesi veya üzerini örtbas etmesidir. Çoğumuz için problemi kabullenmek hatayı ve zayıflığı kabullenmek anlamına gelmektedir. Yönetim kadrolarında bu durum daha çok yaşanır. Çalışanlar ise proseslerde bir hata çıktığında amirinin kızacağı düşüncesiyle çekinir, hatanın fark edilmemesini umarak işlerini yapmaya devam ederler. Ayrıca problem kelimesi tanımı gereği olumsuz bir değerdir. Kimse problemler hakkında konuşmayı sevmez ve hiçbir surette bir probleme dahil olmak istemez. Halbuki her problem bir fırsata dönüştürülebilir. Bu durumda şirket içerisinde “Problem” kelimesi yerine “İyileştirme fırsatı” kelimesini kullanmamız çalışanlar arasında daha pozitif bir durum olarak algılanacak ve motivasyonu yükseltecektir. Yönetim, çalışanlarına bir problem ile karşılaştıklarında çekinmeden söylemeleri gerektiğini, bunun iyi ve takdir edilecek bir şey olduğunu her defasında söylemelidir. Problemin olmadığı yerde iyileşme olmayacağını her zaman hatırlatmalıdır.
Kaizen ekip işidir, bir şirket çalışanlarıyla ekip olmayı başardığı zaman muhteşem sonuçlara ulaşabilir.
KAIZEN VE KARLILIK
Kârı artırmanın iki yolu vardır;
1. Satışları Artırma 2. Sabit ve değişken maliyetleri azaltma
Kaizen hem satışları yükselterek hem de maliyetleri düşürerek kârı artırmayı hedefler. Hedefine, tüm çalışanları ve tüm prosesleri geliştirerek ulaşır.
Hiçbir şey ve durum iyileştirilemeyecek kadar mükemmel değildir.