Today, due to competition conditions, the number of companies that carry stocks and open orders more than their needs is rapidly decreasing. The concept of ” work with zero stock” (JIT) , which Toyota has started to implement in the 1970s, has now begun or implemented by all companies. Companies are obliged to make shipment at the requested time and at the requested quality. For this, the company’s production, maintenance, quality, sales and so on. all organs must work in a healthy manner. When we look for production, we need operators who know the equipment used and the product they produce well, reliable machines with low failure rate and correct production at first time.
Unfortunately, many companies have not yet reached the level of delivering the desired product, just in time, in the desired quantity and in the desired quality. Failure of the machines to be reliable, failure in unexpected times, high rate of faulty production and untrained operators delay production. Overheads to be able to grow the production, transportation costs that have to be paid extra, production made to waste or scrap, long setup time and machine breakdown (stop, spare parts, service etc.)the costs drop the profitability seriously. Another important problem is that the production area is dirty, irregular and the machines are neglected. Motivation and ownership are low in a dirty and irregular production environment, employees are not disturbed by irregularities or even problems around them. Ignorance is widespread and discipline can not be talked about. For this reason, there are constant negative reviews from customers and management, and even this can lead to the customer.
Upon closer to this medium in machine contamination, oil and water leaks, scattered and torn hoses, parts fulfilling the function of the damaged surfaces, jerky running engines, the molds were exposed to high pressures and temperatures and low performance (speed and quality loss) you see with powered machines . These are all serious news habercis …
When you talk to the manufacturer, they complain about maintenance staff. When you talk to the caregiver, they tell you that they can not keep up with maintenance and repairs and they complain that their production workers do not use the machines correctly and do not keep them clean. To reduce machine-induced inefficiencies changing the perspective that Americans care activities from the 1950s ‘Preventive Maintenance’ (Preventive Maintenance) , ‘Corrective Care’ (Corrective Maintenance) , and ‘Care Prevention’ (Maintenance Prevention) have established such systems. These methods have somewhat reduced machine-based inefficiencies, but these systems have not been enough to meet the ever-increasing expectations.
WHAT IS AUTOMATIC MAINTENANCE?
In the 1970s, it is implementing the Americans by the Japanese ‘Preventive Maintenance’ (PM) approach modeled on the TPM (Total Productive Maintenance – Total Productive Maintenance) production management system they called was formed. TPM aims to create a corporate culture that will maximize the efficiency of the production system.
The TPM, a system that focuses on human respect, incorporates its operators or, in other words, its production maintenance activities with its Autonomous Care (Jishu-Hozen) feature.
The meaning of the autonomic word can be explained by “self-sufficient, able to do without being dependent on others”.
ROLE OF EMPLOYEES
It is aimed to support the production of machines and assembling lines with uninterrupted and minimum loss by educating operators who are conscious, educated and have a high sense of ownership. Occupancies that will take an active role in autonomous maintenance work will have a positive impact on remediation activities if they have the vast majority of the following characteristics.
In fact, these definitions are the ideal operator definition that every production manager wants to be on the team. The autonomous maintenance method will be a good guide for you to reach this ideal
AUTOMOTIVE MAINTENANCE FLOORS
It aims to improve autonomic maintenance equipment and operator performance in 7 steps.
Before the cleaning and control activities, which are the first step, it is necessary to take out the list of unsafe activities which may lead to work accidents and to take the counter measures and train them.
Step 1: Cleaning and Control It
is an important step where “Clean control” is settled by letting the cleaning anomalies be noticed. Cleaning does not just mean cleaning the equipment. It allows the “small defects / abnormalities” to be noticed by touching and cleaning the equipment manually. It is important to understand what equipment cleanliness is by operators before autonomous maintenance starts.
cleanliness Equipment cleaning; It is defined as a detailed cleaning of foreign materials such as dirt, paint, dust, oil stains, small parts and mud adhering to equipment, mold, jig and tools. The hidden defects on the equipment are released after cleaning. “Clean control” is used for this reason.
An error card (F-Tag) is placed for any anomalies detected during cleaning activities .
Important Points About Cleaning
Step 2: Countermeasures
This step involves the elimination of sources of pollution and scattering, the shuffling of work to facilitate access to the hard-to-reach areas, and the dropping of staff for cleaning and control activities. In this step, operators start to produce kaizen ideas and take part in their work. This improves the motivation of the operators and develops the team spirit. The kaizen made makes operators specialize in equipment, ownership and confidence in themselves.
Destruction of pollution and scattering The
first step is to eliminate the sources of pollution and scattering, and if it can not be destroyed, the kaizen activities are carried out to minimize it. The elimination of contamination and scattering sources allows for the shortening of the wages that are left for daily incremental cleaning and increases the motivation of the operator. Clearing the same pollution every day reduces the motivation of the operator after a while and reduces the desire to clean up over time, the same is true for long-lasting control activities.
Facilitation of access to areas of difficulty To facilitate
cleaning and control activities and to reduce the time to leave, kaizen activities are carried out to facilitate access to the difficult areas to be reached.
• Dissemination of visual control methods that reduce control times,
• Dissemination of elements that facilitate dismantling / tooling operations,
• Use of cleaner facilitating cleaning equipment for hard-to-reach areas …
Step 3: Creating Temporary Standards i
lubrication points of the equipment for this step, the operator about how to check the oil level and lubrication oil supplements are given training.
At the end of this step, the operator begins to apply periodic oil control and lubrication.
The experience gained in the first and second steps establishes a transitional autonomous maintenance standard by deciding on cleaning, control and lubrication activities to stop the deterioration of the equipment and to detect any anomalies before the failure. With new winning experiences, this standard is continually revised and moved to the upper levels.
One of the important points is that now operators have come to realize and accept the importance of the necessity of this standard. In this process, it is necessary to continue to be informed with trainings about operator equipment. Kaizen activities are continued to shorten cleaning and control times. At the end of this step, you have a clean equipment track where the deterioration is stopped.
Step 4: General Control The
first three steps focused on the prevention of deterioration and the establishment and improvement of transient autonomous care standards.
In the fourth step, it is aimed to become a real expert in the development of the operator and equipment while dealing with the deterioration of the measure and the deterioration. The operator is provided with the ability to better understand the function and structure of his / her equipment, to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to operate the equipment, to perform daily checks that are consciously confirmed, and to improve the autonomic maintenance capabilities through the rotation of the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle.
Operators need to learn the basics that are common to each piece of equipment so that they can become experts in the equipment they use.
Within this scope, the following trainings are given;
These trainings improve the ability to recognize abnormalities. After each training, “General Checks” are performed with the instructor. Some control and repair operations are handed over to operators.
Step 5: Autonomic Control
The provisional autonomous care standard to ensure continuity of success achieved in the first four steps and to improve productivity;
is reviewed again. The aim here is to improve the quality, sustainability and efficiency of autonomous maintenance activities in all respects. In this step, the machines
will be able to reach their first day performance . The operators focus on product quality by giving trainings about the situation and how they affect the product quality.
Step 6: Standardization In
this step, the management mechanism is established by defining the autonomous care management conditions. This step is also intended to expand the role of the operator in relation to the area-related operations in the vicinity of the equipment. By focusing on the movements of the operator, kaizenes are made to facilitate the work and destroy the losses. The following standards are established for the work the operator has done:
It is expected that all operators in the Sahar will perform as well as any average operator, autonomous management can be mentioned after all of the operators can perform as an average operator and the whole loss is reduced.
Step 7: Total Autonomous Management
The goal is to create a management that will not fail in the future so that the level achieved by the first 6 steps can not be lost and the continuity can
be maintained. At this point; equipment that has reached its first day performances and lossless
productionwith operators who have adopted the philosophy of “zero accident, zero failure, zero failure and zero stop”. Thanks to the feedback and recommendations of the operators, the level of success of new equipment and new product development activities has increased, labor and quality costs
It has been reduced. Operators with a high level of knowledge and skill can now carry on their day-to-day operations in accordance with company goals and policies and continue their kaizen activities in line with company goals. Thanks to conscious operators who know the equipment well and are aware of the anomalies in advance, the decrease in defects and the inadvertent erroneous results will cause the added value of the maintenance team to be reduced significantly.
they will be able to move rapidly to become a more competent maintenance department that focuses on improvement and development work to increase machine performance, focuses on automation work, and carries out maintenance and spare parts costs lowering work. Production managers
will have the opportunity to spend more time in increasing engineering activities such as lowering costs, upgrading quality, researching new production techniques and technologies. It has a clean and orderly production area and a machine park where customers and tourists can be proudly displayed, motivating all employees, especially operators.