► Application of Mechanical Production Facilities (18th Century)
► Serial Production Based on Electricity and Work Department
► Automation of Production Processes (20th Century)
► Autonomous Machines and Virtual Environments (21st Century)
Industry 4.0 is a collective body of concepts of technology and value chain organizations. It is based on the concept of cyber-physical systems, the objects, the internet and the internet of services. This structure contributes greatly to the formation of the vision of smart factories. Industry 4.0 consists of the following 3 structures in general.
With industry 4.0 , modular intelligent factories are aimed at tracking physical processes with cyber-physical systems, creating a virtual copy of the physical world, and making decentralized decisions. The Internet of objects and cyber-physical systems will be able to communicate in real time with each other and with people in cooperation. Both internal and cross-organizational services will be provided through the services’ internet and will be evaluated by users of the value chain.
Industry 4.0 is based on 6 principles.
1) Interoperability: Ciber includes the ability of people and smart factories to communicate with each other through the Internet of objects and the ability of physical systems (eg workpiece carriers, assembly stations and products) to communicate with each other.
2) Virtualization: This is a virtual copy of intelligent factories. The system consists of connecting sensor data with virtual plant and simulation models.
3) Self-government: The ability of cyber-physical systems to make their own decisions within smart factories.
4) Real-Time Ability: Ability to collect and analyze data. This structure enables quick understanding.
5) Service Orientation: Cyber-physical systems, people and intelligent factory services are offered via the Internet.
6) Modularity: Provides a smart factory flexible adaptation system for the changing requirements of individual modules.
Production in the Industry 4.0 system is likened to a system in which machines serve and share information in real time with products. For example, they use soap bottles to show how products and manufacturing machines can communicate with each other. Empty soap bottles have radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on them that allow the machines to identify the color of the bottles. Thanks to this system, it is possible to store the information that a product transmits with radio signals in digital environment from the beginning of production. It emerges as a cyber-physical system in this way.